|Scientific name||Protoceratops andrewsi|
|Home time period||Late Cretaceous|
|Creature type||Ceratopsid Dinosaur|
|Appearances||Episode 1.1 (picture)|
Protoceratops is a smaller relative of Triceratops or Torosaurus, that lived around 90 to 75 million years ago. It was included in Connor´s Database. Protoceratops was common in Mongolia as nests were found in large numbers. A Protoceratops and Velociraptor fossil were found stuck together in a battle. This is evidence that raptors attacked Protoceratops.
Protoceratops was a quadrepedal dinosaur that was partially characterized by its distinctive neck frill at the back of its skull. The frill itself contained two large parietal fenestra (holes in the frill), while its cheeks had large jugal bones. The exact size and shape of the neck frill varied by individual; some specimens had short, compact frills, while others had frills nearly half the length of the skull. The frill consists mostly of the parietal bone and partially of the squamosal. Some researchers, including Peter Dodson attribute the different sizes and shapes of these bones to sexual dimorphism, as well as the age of the specimen, at the time of death.
Protoceratops was approximately 1.8 meters (6 ft) in length and 0.6 meters (2 ft) high at the shoulder. A fully grown adult would have weighed less than 400 pounds (180 kg). The large numbers of specimens found in high concentration suggest that Protoceratops lived in herds.Protoceratops was a relatively small dinosaur with a proportionately large skull. Despite being herbivorous, Protoceratops appears to have had muscular jaws capable of a powerful bite. These jaws were packed with dozens of teeth, well suited for chewing tough vegetation. The skull consisted of a massive frontal beak, and four pairs of fenestrae (skull openings). The foremost hole, the naris, was considerably smaller than the nostrils seen in later genera. Protoceratops had large orbits (the holes for its eyes), which measured around 50 millimeters in diameter. Behind the eye was a slightly smaller fenestra, known as the "infratemporal fenestra."